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Glaciares y Glaciaciones - Erosión glaciar
Glaciares y Glaciaciones - www.rutageologica.cl - info@rutageologica.cl

Los Glaciares: una parte de dos ciclos basicos. - Tipos de Glaciares: Glaciares de Valle (Alpinos) - Glaciares de Casquete - Otros tipos de Glaciares. Formacion del Hielo Glaciar - Movimiento de un Glaciar: Velocidad de Movimiento de un Glaciar - Balance de Un Glaciar. Erosion Glaciar. Formaciones Geologicas x Glaciar: Valles Glaciares - Aristas y Horns - Rocas Aborregadas.

Glaciares y Glaciaciones - www.rutageologica.cl - info@rutageologica.cl

Depositos Glaciares. Formas Constituidas por Tills: Morrenas Laterales y Centrales - Morrenas terminales y laterales - Drumlins. Formas Constituidas por Derrubios Glaciares: Llanuras Aluviales y Valley Trains - Depositos en contacto con el Hielo. Teoria Glaciar y El Periodo Glaciar Cuaternario.- Causas de Las Glaciaciones: Tectonica de placas - Variaciones en la Orbita de la Tierra.

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RUTAS GEOLOGICAS ARAUCANIA


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GEOLOGIA GENERAL


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GLACIARES Y GLACIACIONES


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Glaciares y Glaciaciones - Erosión glaciar

GEOLOGIA GENERAL - Glaciares

Extracto : "Ciencias de la Tierra 8 EdicionUna Introducción a la Geología FísicaEdward J. Tarbuck, Frederick K. Lutgens".

Erosión glaciar

Los glaciares son capaces de una gran erosión. Para cualquiera que haya observado el fi¡ral de un glaciar alpino, las pruebas de su fuerza erosiva son claras. Se puede ser testigo de primera mano de la liberación de material rocoso de varios tamaños, por el hielo, cuando se funde. Todos los signos llevan a la conclusión de que el hielo ha arañado, restregado y roto la roca del fondo y las paredes del valle y las ha transportado valle abajo. De hecho, como medio de transporte de sedimentos, el hielo no tiene parangón,

Una vez que un derrubio rocoso es recogido por el glaciar la enorme competencia del hielo no permitirá que los derrubios se sedimenten como la carga transportada por una corriente de agua o por el viento. Por consiguiente, los glaciares pueden transportar enormes bloques que ningún otro agente erosivo podría posiblemente mover. Aunque los glaciares actuales son de importancia limitada como agente erosivos. muchos paisajes que fueron modificados por los glaciares que dominaban el planeta durante el período glacial más reciente reflejan todavía un elevado grado de trabajo del hielo.

Los glaciares erosionan el terreno fundamentalmente de dos maneras: arranque y abrasión. En primer lugar, a medida que un glaciar fluye sobre una superficie fracturada del lecho de roca, ablanda y levanta bloques de roca y los incorpora al hielo. Este proceso, conocido como arranque, se produce cuando el agua de fusión penetra en las grietas y las diaclasas del lecho de roca del fondo del glaciar y se congela. Conforme el agua se expande, actúa como una enorme palanca que suelta la roca levantándola. De esta manera, sedimentos de todos los tamaños entran a formar parte de la carga del glaciar.

El segundo proceso erosivo importante es la abrasión. A medida que el hielo y su carga de fragmentos rocosos se deslizan sobre el lecho de roca. funcionan como papel de lija que alisa y pule la superficie situada debajo. La roca pulverizada producida por la , glaciar se denomina con propiedad harina de roca. Se puede producir tanta harina de roca que las corrientes de agua de fusión que fluyen fuera de un glaciar a menudo tienen el aspecto grisáceo de la leche desnatada y ofrecen pruebas visibles del poder de molienda del hielo.

Cuando el hielo del fondo de un glaciar contiene grandes framentos de roca, pueden incluso excavarse arañazos y surcos en el lecho de roca denominados estrías glaciares. Esos surcos lineales proporcionan pistas sobre la dirección del flujo de hielo. Cartografiando las estrías a lo largo de grandes áreas, pueden a menudo reconstruirse los modelos de flujo glaciar. Por otro lado, no toda la acción abrasiva produce estrías. El hielo y su carga de partículas más finas también pueden llegar a pulir mucho las superficies rocosas sobre las cuales se desplaza el glaciar.

Las grandes superficies de granito suavemente pulido del Parque Nacional Yosemite proporcionan un ejemplo excelente.

Como ocurre con otros agentes de erosión, la velocidad de erosión de un glaciar es muy variable. Esta erosión diferencial llevada a cabo por el hielo está muy controlada por cuatro factores: (1) velocidad de movimiento del glaciar; (2) espesor del hielo; (3) forma, abundancia y dureza de los fragmentos de roca contenidos en el hielo en la base del glaciar y (4) erosionabilidad de la superficie por debajo del glaciar. Variaciones en uno o en todos esos factores de un momento a otro o de un lugar a otro significan que los rasgos, efectos y grado de modificación del paisaje en las regiones glaciares pueden variar enormemente.

 



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