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Terremotos y Ondas - Terremotos: Prueba de La Tectónica de placas
Terremotos y Ondas Sismicas - www.rutageologica.cl - info@rutageologica.cl

¿ Que es un Terremoto ? - Terremotos y Fallas - Rebote Elastico - Sismos Precursores y Replicas. Ruptura y Propagaci´´on de Un Terremoto - Sismologia.

Terremotos y Ondas Sismicas - www.rutageologica.cl - info@rutageologica.cl

Localizacion de un Terremoto: Cinturones Sismicos - Profundidad de Los Focos. Medicion de Las dimensiones sismicas: Escalas de Intensidad y Magnitud. Destruccion causada por Los Terremotos. - ¿Pueden Predecirse Los Terremotos ?.

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RUTAS GEOLOGICAS ARAUCANIA


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GEOLOGIA GENERAL


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TERREMOTOS Y ONDAS SISMICAS


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Terremotos y Ondas - Terremotos: Prueba de La Tectónica de placas

GEOLOGIA GENERAL - Terremotos y Ondas SIsmicas

Extracto : "Ciencias de la Tierra 8 EdicionUna Introducción a la Geología FísicaEdward J. Tarbuck, Frederick K. Lutgens".

Terremotos: pruebas de la tectónica de placas

Los terremotos y Terremotos: pruebas de la tectónica de placas

En el mismo momento en que se formuló el esquema básico de la teoría de la tectónica de placas, los investigadores de varias ramas de las geociencias empezaron a probar su validez. Uno de los primeros esfuerzos lo realizó un grupo de sismólogos, que fueron capaces de demostrar una buena relación entre el modelo de tectónica de placas recién desarrollado y la distribución global de los terremotos que se muestra en la Figura 1i.12. En particular, esos científicos pudieron explicar la estrecha asociación entre los terremotos de foco profundo y las zonas de subducción.

Figura TERREM-23 Probabilidad de aparición de grandes terremotos entre el año 1988 y el 2018 a lo largo de la falla de San Andrés.

Basándonos en nuestros conocimientos del mecanismo que genera la mayoría de terremotos, podría predecirse que los terremotos ocurrirán sólo en la capa fría, rígida y más externa de la Tierra, Recordemos que a medida que estas rocas se deforman, se doblan y almacenar energía elástica, como una cinta de goma estirada. Una vez la roca se ha deformado lo suficiente, se fractura, liberando la energía almacenada en forma de vibraciones sísmicas. Por el contrario, las rocas móviles calientes de la astenosfera no pueden almacenar energía elástica y por tanto, no generarán terremotos. hasta ahora se han observado terremotos con profundidades de casi 700 kilómetros.

La conexión única entre los terremotos con foco profundo y las fosas oceánicas se estableció mediante los estudios llevados a cabo en las islas Tonga. Cuando se representan las profundidades de los focos sísmicos y sus localizaciones dentro del arco de las Tonga, surge el modelo mostrado en la Figura TERREM-24. La mayoría de los terremotos superficiales se producen dentro de la fosa, o en la zona adyacente a ella, mientras que los terremotos medios o de foco profundo se producen hacia las islas Tonga.

En el modelo de la tectónica de placas, las fosas submarinas se forman allí donde las placas densas de litosfera oceánica se hunden en el manto (Figura TERREM-24). Los terremotos de foco superficial se producen en respuesta al plegamiento y la fracturación de la litosfera cuando empieza su descenso o a medida que la placa en subducción interacciona con la capa situada por encima. Cuanto más desciende la placa en la astenósfera, son generados terremotos de foco profundo mediante otros mecanismos. Muchas de las pruebas disponibles sugieren que los terremotos ocurren en la placa en subducción relativamente fría y no tanto en las rocas dúctiles del manto. Por debajo de los 700 kilómetros, se han registrado muy pocos terremotos. debido posiblemente a que la placa en subducción se ha calentado lo suficiente como para perder su rigidez.

Otras pruebas que respaldan el modelo de la tectónica de placas procedían de observar que los terremotos superficiales predominan a lo largo de los límites divergentes y de falla transformante. Recordemos que a lo largo de la falla de San Andrés, la mayoría de terremotos se produce en los primeros 20 kilómetros de la corteza. Puesto que las fosas oceánicas son los únicos lugares donde las placas frías de la corteza oceánica se sumergen a grandes profundidades, éstas podrían ser los únicos puntos donde se producen terremotos de foco profundo. De hecho, la ausencia de terremotos de foco profundo a lo largo de las dorsales oceánicas y las fallas transformantes apoya la teoría de la tectónica de placas.

Figura TERREM-24 Distribución idealizada de los focos sísmicos en las proximidades de la fosa de las Tonga. obsérvese que los terremotos intermedios y de foco profundo se producen sólo en el interior de la litosfera que se hunde. (ModificadJsegún B. lsacks, J. Oliver y L. R. Sykes.)

 

 



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